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PART X EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING
|Transport, storage, manufacture, use, and distribution of explosives
in or at any Mineral Licence areas.
10.1 Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law, the transport, storage, manufacture, use, and distribution of explosives in or at any Mineral Licence areas shall be governed by these regulations.
Transport of explosives
10.2 (1) Transport of explosives from any designated bulk delivery depot to any Mineral Licence areas and or between Mineral Licence areas shall be governed by these regulations.
(2) Any vehicle used for the transport of explosives outside the Mineral Licence areas shall conform to the provision of the Explosive Act; 1956 (Act 26, 1956).
(3) Any vehicle used for the transport of explosives within the Mineral Licence areas shall;
(a) have a substantially constructed body, no metal capable of creating a spark exposed in the cargo space and shall be equipped with suitable side or tail gates;
(b) be equipped with suitable fire extinguishers, wheel chocks and when powered by an internal combustion engine, a battery isolating switch;
(c) when conveying explosives, be posted with proper warning signs;
(d) when parked whilst carrying explosives, have its parking brakes set, the motive power switched off and the vehicle blocked securely against rolling and not be left unattended;
(e) when required to be taken to a garage or repair shop for any purpose, be emptied and cleaned out; and
(f) no trailer shall be used in the transportation of explosives.
10.3 Not withstanding sub-sections 1, 2 and 3;
(1) No other objects shall be placed in or on the cargo space of a conveyance carrying explosives.
(2) Only duly authorized persons shall be allowed to travel in vehicles carrying explosives.
(3) Any explosives shall be conveyed without undue delay, and over routes and at times that expose a minimum number of persons to danger
(4) Any detonators shall be conveyed separately from other explosives.
Storage of explosives
10.4 (1) The mine manager or mineral licence holder shall cause explosives to be stored in an explosives facility of which the siting, design and construction has been approved by the Chief Inspector.
(2) An explosives facility referred to in sub-regulation (1) shall be under the charge of a person authorized by the mine manager or Mineral Licence holder for such purpose who shall be responsible for the safe storage and issue of explosives.
(3) The person referred to in sub regulation (2) shall keep a record of the quantities of explosives on hand and the quantities, dates and times when any explosives were received or issued and the names of the persons to whom they were issued.
(4) No article likely to cause a fire or explosion other than explosives shall be allowed in or taken into an explosives facility.
(5) An explosive facility shall be -
(a) kept clean, dry and adequately maintained in good and safe condition;
(b) be kept locked and the key shall be retained in the possession of the person in charge of such facility.
(6) The area surrounding an explosives facility shall be kept free of any flammable material.
(7) No unauthorized person shall be allowed to enter an explosives facility.
Explosives to be used
10.5 (1) No explosives shall be used in or at any Mineral Licence areas unless such explosives -
(a) have been provided by the mine manager or the Mineral Licence holder; and
(b) are included in a list of authorized explosives published in the Gazette in terms of the Explosives Act, 1956 (Act 26 of 1956);and
(c) are of good quality and in good condition.
(2) Explosives shall be issued -
(a) only to persons duly authorized by the mine manager or Mineral Licence holder;
(b) in the same chronological order in which they were received.
Scheme for conveyance and use of explosives within a Mineral Licence area
10.6 (1) The mine manager or Mineral Licence holder shall formulate a scheme for the conveyance of explosives within the Mineral Licence area which shall include provisions regarding the :-
(a) quantity of explosives to be issued to any one person;
(b) type and size of boxes used to carry explosives;
(c) maximum quantity of explosives which may be transported at any one time;
(d) conveyance of explosives in any shaft conveyance;
(e) supervision during the conveyance of explosives;
(f) precautions to be taken to prevent fire or accidental explosion;
(g) security and locking of boxes containing explosives;
Keeping of explosives near workings
10.7 (1) Explosives shall only be left or kept at a place designated by the mine manager.
(2) The amount of explosives to be kept at any one place underground shall be fixed by the mine manager, but the total quantity of explosives in such boxes shall not exceed 24 hours estimated consumption at that place.
(3) Any place near workings where explosives are kept shall be maintained in a clean and safe condition and be out of bounds to unauthorized persons.
10.8 (1) The preparation of charges shall be carried out by or under the personal supervision of a blaster.
(2) No person shall be authorized to carry out blasting operations without a valid blasting certificate.
10.9 A blaster shall only use tools provided by the manager or Mineral Licence holder not use any tool or appliance other than a tool provided by the mine manager.
Marking, drilling, charging, tamping and blasting
10.10 (1) No hole shall be marked for drilling, except by the blaster.
(2) A blaster shall, before a hole is marked for drilling -
(a) remove or cause to be removed all loose rock, material or ground at and around the position of the hole to be drilled;
(b) in the case of underground workings, also wash over with water he surface at and around the position of the hole to be drilled;
(c) make a thorough examination for sockets and misfired holes at and around the position of hole to be drilled;
(d) where the hole to be drilled is likely to encounter any sockets or misfired holes at any other face or workings in the vicinity, make an examination for sockets and misfired holes at such face or workings.
(3) The blaster shall mark a hole only after the examination under sub regulation (2)(c) and (d) has revealed the absence of sockets and misfired holes or when discovered sockets or misfired holes have been safely dealt with.
(4) A hole shall not be drilled in any face or bench so that any portion of the hole comes within 150 millimeters of a hole containing explosives.
(5) No person, other than the blaster who has marked the hole for drilling, shall lengthen or redrill such hole.
(6) The charging and tamping shall be done under the direct supervisor of the blaster.
(7) No shot hole shall be charged unless it has been thoroughly cleaned.
(8) Explosives provided by the manager or Mineral Licence holder shall be used only in the form in which they are supplied by the manufacturer or supplier.
(9) No explosive cartridges shall be forced into a shot hole.
(10) The blaster shall, before commencing charging operations, ensure that all unauthorized persons have been withdrawn to a place of safety.
(11) No explosive cartridges shall be fitted with detonators or detonating fuses until immediately before use, except where otherwise authorized by the mine manager, and a detonator once inserted into a cartridge shall not be taken out.
(12) All shot holes shall be tamped with sufficient and suitable material.
(13) No pneumatic charging of ammonium nitrate blasting agent shall be used, unless adequate steps have been taken to eliminate the hazard of static electricity, including the grounding and bonding of the conductive parts of the pneumatic loading equipment.
(14) Any loader and its associated equipment, when earthed, shall give a total resistance to earth of not more than one kilo ohm.
(15) No water lines, compressed air lines, wire-covered hoses, rail or permanent electrical earthing systems shall be used as a means of earthing the loader.
(16) The mine manager shall fix the time for conducting blasting operations in any part or section of the mine, and the blaster shall ensure that blasting operations are conducted only during the times fixed by the mine manager.
(17) In underground workings all persons in that section shall, before blasting in any section of the mine, be withdrawn to the ventilation intake side of the place or places where blasting is to be done or to such other place where resultant smoke, dust and noise will not affect them.
(18) When two workplaces underground have approached within 10 meters of each other, the blaster shall not fire any shot in any such workplaces, unless all persons have been withdrawn from the other workplace and the same has been barricaded.
(19) Where blasting operations in an opencast mine or other surface mining activity could constitute a danger to any person or property, the mine manager shall cause adequate precautions to be taken as may be necessary to prevent injury to persons or damage to property.
(20) Firing of charges shall be done by a blaster. In the case of centralized blasting systems, only the blaster so appointed by the manager shall fire the shots.
10.11 (1) Where shots are fired electrically the following provisions shall apply, namely -
(a) no shot shall be fired except by means of an approved blasting apparatus and the number of
(b) any electrical blasting apparatus shall be so designed that it can only be operated by a removable key or handle which key or handle shall not be placed in position until a shot is about to be fired and shall be removed as soon as a shot has been fired;
(c) no defective apparatus shall be used.
(2) The blaster shall -
(a) retain the key or handle of the blasting apparatus in his or her possession throughout his or her shift;
(b) use properly insulated and, waterproofed blasting cable which is in good condition and of sufficient length;
(c) ensure that the blasting cable is kept disconnected and short circuited at each end during the period holes are being charged;
(d) before connecting the cable to the blasting apparatus, personally connect the cable to the detonator leads;
(e) take care to prevent the cable from coming into contact with any power or lighting cable or other electrical apparatus or conductive materials;
(f) personally connect the cable to the blasting apparatus;
(g) after blasting disconnect the cable from the blasting apparatus and short circuit the cable at both ends.
(3) Where more than one shot is to be fired at the same time -
(a) electric detonators of different makes shall not be used in the same round;
(b) except when being tested with an instrument -
(I) electric detonators shall be kept shunted until they are being connected to the blasting line or wired into a blasting round;
(ii) wired rounds shall be kept shunted until they are being connected to the blasting line;
(iii) blasting lines shall be kept shunted until immediately before blasting;
(c) the circuit shall be tested either for electrical resistance or for continuity before connecting it to the blasting apparatus;
(d) any tests shall be made with an apparatus specially designed for the purpose and after all persons in the vicinity, including the blaster and his or her assistants, have taken adequate shelter.
(2) Where blasting is carried out by means of electric power circuit -
(a) the voltage and current shall be adequate for the number of detonators in the circuit and the manner in which these are connected;
(b) the blasting cables shall be isolated from the source of power by a double throw switch by means of which the cables when disconnected from the source of power are short circuited and earthed;
(c) the isolating switch shall be housed in a box with a lockable door;
(d) the key to the door of the isolating switch box shall remain in the personal custody of the blaster on duty;
(e) immediately after blasting the blaster shall disconnect the blasting cable from the source of power and lock the box.
(5) In opencast workings no attempt shall be made to charge, connect or blast a shot electrically if there is any sign of thunderstorm activity.
(6) No radio transmitters or other radio frequency fields shall be permitted at or near places where electric detonators are used without the permission in writing of the mine manager.
Examination after blasting
10.12 (1) After blasting has taken place in any part of the workings, no person shall enter such part or any place liable to be contaminated with dust, fumes or noxious gases until the blaster has examined such part or place and is satisfied that all charges have exploded and that it is safe to resume work.
(2) After a charge has been fired the blaster shall not approach within range of the exploding charge until such time that the air at the place of blasting is free from smoke, gas, fumes and dust.
Disposal of old, deteriorated or damaged explosives
10.13 (1) Any old or damaged explosives and explosives recovered in the workings from misfired holes or broken rock shall be kept in containers provided for the purpose by the mine manager at suitable places.
(2) Any container referred to in sub regulation (1) shall be -
(a) of robust construction and be provided with an effective lock;
(b) painted red and be clearly marked to indicate the type of explosives to be placed therein;
(c) locked at all times except when the explosives have to be removed for destruction.
(3) Any old or damaged explosives and explosives recovered in the workings shall be destroyed at such intervals and in such manner as may be prescribed by the mine manager in consultation with the manufacturer or supplier of the explosives.
General safeguards in relation to handling of explosives
10.14 (1) No person shall smoke or light a fire or bring a naked light or flame, within a distance of 10 meters of any place where explosives are being handled or have been placed, nor shall any person who is engaged in handling explosives or who is travelling on a vehicle on which explosives are being conveyed, carry any means of producing a flame or spark.
(2) Any place where explosives are stored or explosives boxes or containers kept shall be clearly sign posted.
(3) No person shall have in his or her possession explosives except as provided for in these regulations.
(4) The mine manager shall have the right to cause any person to be searched for explosives at or in a mine at any time and no person shall hinder or obstruct such search.
(5) Where operations at a mine are to cease or be suspended, all explosives shall be removed to a safe place or destroyed.
(6) Except with the permission in writing of the Chief Inspector and subject to such conditions as he or she may specify, no shot shall be fired within 500 meters of any building, public thoroughfare, railway, power line or any place where people are present.
Explosives not to be left unattended
10.15 No explosives shall be left unattended at any place outside an explosives magazine or other authorized enclosed storage place.